It appears that the Frankish tribes fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest, which are still seen in modern Dutch. A notable exception is the Bergakker inscription, found near the Dutch city of Tiel, which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish.
Although some place names recorded in Roman texts such as , English: "mudflat"), could arguably be considered as the oldest single "Dutch" words, the Bergakker inscription yields the oldest evidence of Dutch morphology.
This is assumed to have taken place in approximately the mid-first millennium BCE in the pre-Roman Northern European Iron Age.Later, theudisca appeared also in the Oaths of Strasbourg (842) to refer to the Germanic (Rhenish Franconian) portion of the oath.Until roughly the 16th century, speakers of all the varieties of the West Germanic languages from the mouth of the Rhine to the Alps had been accustomed to refer to their native speech as some cognate of theudisk.It literarily means "the language of the common people", that is, the native Germanic language.The term was used as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church.
Hollands ("Hollandic"), West-Vlaams ("West Flemish"), Brabants ("Brabantian").