They were more bread-like and sweetened with honey. According to the food historians, the ancient Egyptians were the first culture to show evidence of advanced baking skills.
The Oxford English Dictionary traces the English word cake back to the 13th century. Medieval European bakers often made fruitcakes and gingerbread. According to the food historians, the precursors of modern cakes (round ones with icing) were first baked in Europe sometime in the mid-17th century. The first icing were usually a boiled composition of the finest available sugar, egg whites and [sometimes] flavorings. The cake was then returned to the oven for a while.
It was not until the middle of the 19th century that cake as we know it today (made with extra refined white flour and baking powder instead of yeast) arrived on the scene. The Cassell's New Universal Cookery Book [London, 1894] contains a recipe for layer cake, American (p. Butter-cream frostings (using butter, cream, confectioners [powdered] sugar and flavorings) began replacing traditional boiled icings in first few decades 20th century.
In France, Antonin Careme [1784-1833] is considered THE premier historic chef of the modern pastry/cake world.
Whereas a cake may remain fresh for several days after baking or even improve with keeping, a gateau usually includes fresh decoration or ingredients that do not keep well, such as fresh fruit or whipped cream.Although both terms can be used for savoury preparations (meat cakes or vegetable gateaux) their main use is for sweet baked goods.Cakes can be large or small, plain of fancy, light or rich.Gateau has wider applications in French, just as 'cake' does in English..can mean a savoury cake, a sweet or savoury tart, or a thin pancake." ---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 1999 (p. Choux/ puff paste, sponge, French cremes, Gateau St. As time progressed, baking pans in various shapes and sizes, became readily available to the general public.Moulded cakes (and fancy ices) reached their zenith in Victorian times.